The general line of this article was approved by the National Committee of Socialist Resistance (British section of the Fourth International) on the 24th of March 2012.
1) The origins of European integration
The origins of European integration, which started with the European Coal and Steel Community (EC&SC) in 1951 and exists today as the European Union (EU) with its Eurozone, can be located in the closing stages of World War II. The European bourgeoisies needed to consolidate their rule following the popular uprisings and radicalisations at the time of liberation from Nazism, particularly in France and Italy. The answer was Marshall Aid, which reflected the economic hegemony of the post-Yalta USA and the supremacy of the dollar as an international currency.
The EC&SC was established with six Member States: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. It was both a reorganisation of Western European capital against the East and an attempt to enmesh a weakened West Germany into a European framework, which would hopefully avoid further European wars. A European Court of Justice was established in 1953.
France backed the EC&SC but was opposed to NATO (which had been established in 1949) since it wanted to build a Europe independent of the USA. It went on to develop its own independent military capability, including nuclear weapons. Read More