Activists said troops fired nail bombs to disperse protesters who retaliated with stones in the suburb of Douma.
Protest organisers had called for mass demonstrations, saying up to 40 people were killed by troops on Thursday while awaiting a visit from the Arab team.
Correspondents say the presence of the monitors has emboldened the protesters.
Syrian opposition groups said the bodies of eight people had been recovered on Friday, although such figures are difficult to verify. At least 5,000 are believed to have died since the revolt against the regime of President Bashar al-Assad began in March. Read More